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When should you spray or mist

The time to take action is before damage is done. To spray as soon as insect pest numbers begin to build is prudent. You can be certain the pests are not going to go away; their numbers will only increase. When the damage is significant, it is too late

Lessened yield is money lost forever. You can do better next year but you can’t get back the losses of the year you’re in now.

 
After the first spray, how long should you wait for the follow up?
The short answer is: spray/mist as soon as the pest population has built to the stage before significant damage is about to occur. You don’t spray just because it’s a week or two weeks; you get out the equipment because you have pests to kill. 

How do you tell?
After the first spray, around 90+% of pests should be dead. There will be some egg-hatching say next day and depending on your pest and the climatic conditions, it could be 14-21 days before the nymphs/larvae get to  become adults. A close inspection of insects in a cluster usually reveals immature stages and some adults. The adults will usually be the ones with wings and, wings means sexual maturity which means more eggs (300-400 per female is quite normal). This is just one indicator that it is time to spray/mist.

Smart growers are always checking for pests. Pests can fly in, suddenly in droves of monoleptas for instance, or thrips, etc., but the population may alternatively build over a couple of generations. The stage the crop is at also has a bearing on the decision; if a pest is not affecting the fruiting process (by eating some foliage but not to the stage photosynthesis is significantly reduced) control measures can probably be delayed.

When harvest is imminent, the timing can be crucial. PyBo’s 1-day withholding period is a comfort to have up your sleeve.